Κostas Gavroglu was born in Istanbul in 1947. He received his bachelor degree in theoretical physics from Lancaster University, completed the Part III Mathematical Tripos at Cambridge University at the Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, and received his doctorate from the Department of Physics, at Imperial College, University of London. His doctorate was on theoretical aspects of elementary particle physics (Non-leptonic decays of hyperons).
He had a post-doctoral appointment at the State University of New York at Stony Brook, was appointed as a privat dozent at the Departments of Physics, first at the University of Patras and, then, at the Physics Department of the National Technical University of Athens.
From 1994 to 2014 he served as professor of History of Science at the Department of History and Philosophy of Science at the University of Athens.
He has been a visiting professor at Imperial College, Harvard University, Boston University, Cambridge University, and Istanbul Technical University. He was research fellow at the Chemical Heritage Foundation, Pennsylvania, the Centre Alexandre Koyre in Paris, the Max Planck Institute for the History of Science in Berlin and the Dibner Institute for the History of Science and Technology at MIT. He has been scientific coordinator in many research projects funded by the European Union, the European Science Foundation, the Greek State and private foundations.
He served as Director of the Laboratory of the Electronic Processing of Historical Archives (dlab.phs.uoa.gr) and was President of the Executive Board of the Historical Archive of the University of Athens (archive.uoa.gr). He was a member of the Executive Board of the John S. Latsis Public Benefit Foundation(latsis-foundation.org).
In 2015 he was co-founder and President of the Scientific Committee of the Research Centre for the Humanities (www.rchumanities.gr),based in Athens, Greece, a non-profit organisation aiming to support young researchers in the Humanities.
His research fields are the history of physical chemistry, the history of quantum chemistry, the history of artificial cold as well as issues related with the appropriation of scientific ideas and practices by the European periphery from the 18th century.
He is a co-editor of the series in history and philosophy science of Springer Publishers, and of Brill Publishers and editor of the series in history of science of Crete University Press and a member of the editorial boards of a number of scientific journals in the history of science.
In September 2015 he was elected MP with SYRIZA. He served as president of the Standing Committee on Education of the Greek Parliament. From November 2016 until the elections of 7th July 2019, he was Minister of Education, Research and Religious Affairs.